Double Taxation Treaty between Ireland and South Africa

The Government of Ireland and the Government of the Republic of South Africa, desiring to conclude a Convention for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income and capital gains and to promote and strengthen the economic relations between the two countries,

Have agreed as follows:

Article 1

Persons Covered

This Convention shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States.

Article 2

Taxes Covered

  1. This Convention shall apply to taxes on income and capital gains imposed on behalf of a Contracting State or of its political subdivisions, irrespective of the manner in which they are levied.
  2. There shall be regarded as taxes on income and capital gains all taxes imposed on total income, or on elements of income, including taxes on gains from the alienation of movable or immovable property.
  3. The existing taxes to which this Convention shall apply are:
    1. in Ireland:
      1. the income tax;
      2. the corporation tax;and
      3. the capital gains tax;(hereinafter referred to as "Irish tax"); and
    2. in South Africa:
      1. the normal tax;  and
      2. the secondary tax on companies;(hereinafter referred to as "South African tax").
  4. The Convention shall apply also to any identical or substantially similar taxes which are imposed by either Contracting State after the date of signature of the Convention in addition to, or in place of, the existing taxes.  The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall notify each other of any significant changes which have been made in their respective taxation laws.

Article 3

General Definitions

  1. For the purposes of this Convention, unless the context otherwise requires:
    1. the term "Ireland" includes any area outside the territorial waters of Ireland which, in accordance with international law, has been or may hereafter be designated under the laws of Ireland concerning the Continental Shelf, as an area within which the rights of Ireland with respect to the sea bed and subsoil and their natural resources may be exercised;
    2. the term "South Africa" means the Republic of South Africa and, when used in a geographical sense, includes the territorial sea thereof as well as any area outside the territorial sea, including the continental shelf, which has been or may hereafter be designated, under the laws of South Africa and in accordance with international law, as an area within which South Africa may exercise sovereign rights or jurisdiction;
    3. the terms "a Contracting State" and "the other Contracting State" mean Ireland or South Africa, as the context requires;
    4. the term "company" means any body corporate or any entity which is treated as a company or body corporate for tax purposes;
    5. the term "competent authority" means:
      1. in Ireland, the Revenue Commissioners or their authorised representative;  and
      2. in South Africa, the Commissioner for Inland Revenue or his authorised representative;
    6. the terms "enterprise of a Contracting State" and "enterprise of the other Contracting State" mean respectively an enterprise carried on by a resident of a Contracting State and an enterprise carried on by a resident of the other Contracting State;
    7. the term "international traffic" means any transport by a ship or aircraft operated by an enterprise of a Contracting State, except when the ship or aircraft is operated solely between places in the other Contracting State;
    8. the term "national" means:
      1. any individual who is a citizen of a Contracting State;
      2. any legal person, association or other entity deriving its status as such from the laws in force in a Contracting State;  and
    9. the term "person" includes an individual, a company, an estate, a trust and any other body of persons but does not include a partnership.
  2. As regards the application of the provisions of the Convention at any time by a Contracting State, any term not defined therein shall, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning which it has at that time under the law of that State for the purposes of the taxes to which the Convention applies, any meaning under the applicable tax laws of that State prevailing over a meaning given to the term under other laws of that State.

Article 4

Resident

  1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term "resident of a Contracting State" means:
    1. in Ireland, any person who, under the laws of Ireland, is liable to tax therein by reason of his domicile, residence, place of management or any other criterion of a similar nature, but this term does not include any person who is liable to tax in Ireland in respect only of income from sources in Ireland;
    2. in South Africa, any individual who under the laws of South Africa is ordinarily resident in South Africa and any other person which has its place of effective management in South Africa;
    3. that State and any political subdivision or local authority thereof.
  2. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then his status shall be determined as follows:
    1. he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which he has a permanent home available to him; if he has a permanent home available to him in both States, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the State with which his personal and economic relations are closer (centre of vital interests);
    2. if the State in which he has his centre of vital interests cannot be determined, or if he has not a permanent home available to him in either State, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which he has an habitual abode;
    3. if he has an habitual abode in both States or in neither of them, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State of which he is a national;
    4. if he is a national of both States or of neither of them, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the question by mutual agreement.
  3. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 a person other than an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then it shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which its place of effective management is situated.

Article 5

Permanent Establishment

  1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term "permanent establishment" means a fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.
  2. The term "permanent establishment" includes especially:
    1. a place of management;
    2. a branch;
    3. an office;
    4. a factory;
    5. a workshop;  and
    6. a mine, an oil or gas well, a quarry or any other place of extraction of natural resources.
  3. A building site, a construction, assembly or installation project or any supervisory activity in connection with such site or project, constitutes a permanent establishment only if such site, project or activity lasts more than twelve months.
  4. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, the term "permanent establishment" shall be deemed not to include:
    1. the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise;
    2. the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery;
    3. the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of processing by another enterprise;
    4. the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise, or for collecting information, for the enterprise;
    5. the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of carrying on, for the enterprise, any other activity of a preparatory or auxiliary character;  and
    6. the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for any combination of activities mentioned in subparagraphs (a) to (e), provided that the overall activity of the fixed place of business resulting from this combination is of a preparatory or auxiliary character.
  5. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, where a person  other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph 6 applies  is acting on behalf of an enterprise and has, and habitually exercises, in a Contracting State an authority to conclude contracts in the name of the enterprise, that enterprise shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in that State in respect of any activities which that person undertakes for the enterprise, unless the activities of such person are limited to those mentioned in paragraph 4 which, if exercised through a fixed place of business, would not make this fixed place of business a permanent establishment under the provisions of that paragraph.
  6. An enterprise shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in a Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status, provided that such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business.
  7. The fact that a company which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other State     (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not of itself constitute either company a permanent establishment of the other.

Article 6

Income from Immovable Property

  1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State from immovable property, including income from agriculture or forestry, situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
  2. The term "immovable property" shall have the meaning which it has under the law of the Contracting State in which the property in question is situated.  The term shall in any case include property accessory to immovable property, livestock and equipment used in agriculture and forestry, rights to which the provisions of general law respecting landed property apply, usufruct of immovable property and rights to variable or fixed payments as consideration for the working of, or the right to work, mineral deposits, sources and other natural resources.  Ships, boats and aircraft shall not be regarded as immovable property.
  3. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall apply to income derived from the direct use, letting or use in any other form of immovable property.
  4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 3 shall also apply to the income from immovable property of an enterprise and to income from immovable property used for the performance of independent personal services.

Article 7

Business Profits

  1. The profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State unless the enterprise carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein.  If the enterprise carries on business as aforesaid, the profits of the enterprise may be taxed in the other State but only so much of them as is attributable to that permanent establishment.
  2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, where an enterprise of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the profits which it might be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment.
  3. In determining the profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed as deductions expenses which are incurred for the purposes of the permanent establishment, including executive and general administrative expenses so incurred, whether in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere.
  4. In so far as it has been customary in a Contracting State to determine the profits to be attributed to a permanent establishment on the basis of an apportionment of the total profits of the enterprise to its various parts, nothing in paragraph 2 shall preclude that Contracting State from determining the profits to be taxed by such an apportionment as may be customary.  The method of apportionment adopted shall, however, be such that the result shall be in accordance with the principles contained in this Article.
  5. No profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment by reason of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the enterprise.
  6. For the purposes of the preceding paragraphs, the profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment shall be determined by the same method year by year unless there is good and sufficient reason to the contrary.
  7. Where profits include items of income or gains which are dealt with separately in other Articles of this Convention, then the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this Article.

Article 8

Shipping and Air Transport

  1. Profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic shall be taxable only in that State.
  2. For the purposes of this Article, profits from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic shall include:
    1. profits derived from the rental of ships or aircraft operated in international traffic or profits derived from the rental of ships or aircraft if such profits are incidental to the profits to which the provisions of paragraph 1 apply;
    2. profits from the use or rental of containers and related equipment used in international traffic.
  3. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall also apply to profits from the participation in a pool, a joint business or an international operating agency.

Article 9

Associated Enterprises

  1. Where:
    1. an enterprise of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State; or
    2. the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of a Contracting State and an enterprise of the other Contracting State,
    and in either case conditions are made or imposed between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which would be made between independent enterprises, then any profits which would, but for those conditions, have accrued to one of the enterprises, but, by reason of those conditions, have not so accrued, may be included in the profits of that enterprise and taxed accordingly.
  2. Where a Contracting State includes in the profits of an enterprise of that State  and taxes accordingly  profits on which an enterprise of the other Contracting State has been charged to tax in that other State and the profits so included are profits which would have accrued to the enterprise of the firstmentioned State if the conditions made between the two enterprises had been those which would have been made between independent enterprises, then that other State shall make an appropriate adjustment to the amount of the tax charged therein on those profits if that other State considers the adjustment justified.  In determining such adjustment, due regard shall be had to the other provisions of this Convention and the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall if necessary consult each other.

Article 10

Dividends

  1. Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in that other State, provided such resident is the beneficial owner of the dividends.
  2. The term "dividends" as used in this Article means income from shares or other rights participating in profits     (not being debtclaims), as well as income from other corporate rights and any income or distribution assimilated to income from shares by the laws of the Contracting State of which the company paying the income or making the distribution is a resident.
  3. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the dividends, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base.  In such case, the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.
  4. Where a company which is a resident of a Contracting State derives profits or income from the other Contracting State, that other State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company, except in so far as such dividends are paid to a resident of that other State or in so far as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment or a fixed base situated in that other State, nor subject the company's undistributed profits to a tax on the company's undistributed profits, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of profits or income arising in such other State.

Article 11

Interest

  1. Interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in that other State, provided such resident is the beneficial owner of the interest.
  2. The term "interest" as used in this Article means income from debtclaims of every kind, whether or not secured by mortgage and whether or not carrying a right to participate in the debtor's profits, and in particular, income from government securities and income from bonds or debentures, including premiums and prizes attaching to such securities, bonds or debentures, as well as all other income assimilated to income from money lent by the laws of the State in which the income arises but does not include any income which is treated as a dividend under Article 10.  Penalty charges for late payment shall not be regarded as interest for the purposes of this Article.
  3. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the interest, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the interest arises, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the debtclaim in respect of which the interest is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base.  In such case, the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.
  4. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the interest, having regard to the debtclaim for which it is paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the lastmentioned amount.  In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.

Article 12

Royalties

  1. Royalties arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in that other State, provided such resident is the beneficial owner of the royalties.
  2. The term "royalties" as used in this Article means payments of any kind received as a consideration for the use of, or the right to use, any copyright of literary, artistic or scientific work     (including cinematograph films and films, tapes or discs for radio or television broadcasting), any patent, trade mark, design or model, plan, secret formula or process, or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience.
  3. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the royalties, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the royalties arise, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the royalties are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base.  In such case, the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.
  4. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the royalties, having regard to the use, right or information for which they are paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the lastmentioned amount.  In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.

Article 13

Capital Gains

  1. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of immovable property referred to in Article 6 and situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
  2. For the purposes of paragraph 1, gains from the alienation of immovable property situated in the other Contracting State shall include gains from shares     (including stock and any security), other than shares quoted on a stock exchange, deriving the greater part of their value directly or indirectly from immovable property situated in that other State.
  3. Gains from the alienation of movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State or of movable property pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, including such gains from the alienation of such a permanent establishment     (alone or with the whole enterprise) or of such fixed base, may be taxed in that other State.
  4. Gains of an enterprise of a Contracting State from the alienation of ships, aircraft or containers operated in international traffic or movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships, aircraft or containers, shall be taxable only in that State.
  5. Gains from the alienation of any property other than that referred to in paragraphs 1, 2, 3 and 4, shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident.
  6. The provisions of paragraph 5 shall not affect the right of a Contracting State to levy, according to its law, a tax on gains from the alienation of any property derived by an individual who is a resident of the other Contracting State and has been a resident of the first-mentioned State at any time during the three years immediately preceding the alienation of the property if the property was held by the individual before he became a resident of that other State.

Article 14

Independent Personal Services

  1. Income derived by an individual who is a resident of a Contracting State in respect of professional services or other activities of an independent character shall be taxable only in that State unless he has a fixed base regularly available to him in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing his activities.  If he has such a fixed base, the income may be taxed in the other State but only so much of it as is attributable to that fixed base.  For the purposes of this Convention, where an individual who is a resident of a Contracting State is present in the other Contracting State for a period or periods exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any twelve month period commencing or ending in the fiscal year concerned, he shall be deemed to have a fixed base regularly available to him in that other State and the income that is derived from his activities that are performed in that other State shall be attributable to that fixed base.
  2. The term "professional services" includes especially independent scientific, literary, artistic, educational or teaching activities as well as the independent activities of physicians, lawyers, engineers, architects, dentists and accountants.

Article 15

Dependent Personal Services

  1. Subject to the provisions of Articles 16, 18, and 19, salaries, wages and other similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment shall be taxable only in that State unless the employment is exercised in the other Contracting State.  If the employment is so exercised, such remuneration as is derived therefrom may be taxed in that other State.
  2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the firstmentioned State if:
    1. the recipient is present in the other State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any twelve month period commencing or ending in the fiscal year concerned;  and
    2. the remuneration is paid by or on behalf of an employer who is not a resident of the other State;  and
    3. the remuneration is not borne by a permanent establishment or a fixed base which the employer has in the other State.
  3. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, remuneration derived in respect of an employment exercised aboard a ship or aircraft operated in international traffic by an enterprise of a Contracting State may be taxed in that State.

Article 16

Directors' Fees

Directors' fees and other similar payments derived by a resident of a Contracting State in his capacity as a member of the board of directors of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

Article 17

Entertainers and Sportspersons

  1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7, 14 and 15, income derived by a resident of a Contracting State as an entertainer such as a theatre, motion picture, radio or television artiste, or a musician, or as a sportsperson, from his personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State.
  2. Where income in respect of personal activities exercised by an entertainer or a sportsperson in his capacity as such accrues not to the entertainer or sportsperson himself but to another person, that income may, notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7, 14 and 15, be taxed in the Contracting State in which the activities of the entertainer or sportsperson are exercised.

Article 18

Pensions and Annuities

  1. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 19, pensions and other similar remuneration and annuities arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State, may be taxed in the firstmentioned State.
  2. The term "annuity" means a stated sum payable periodically at stated times during life or during a specified or ascertainable period of time under an obligation to make the payments in return for adequate and full consideration in money or money's worth.

Article 19

Government Service

    1. Salaries, wages and other similar remuneration, other than a pension, paid by a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or subdivision or authority shall be taxable only in that State.
    2. However, such salaries, wages and other similar remuneration shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the services are rendered in that State and the individual is a resident of that State who:
      1. is a national of that State;  or
      2. did not become a resident of that State solely for the purpose of rendering the services.
    1. Any pension paid by, or out of funds created by, a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or subdivision or authority shall be taxable only in that State.
    2. However, such pension shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the individual is a resident of, and a national of, that State.
  1. The provisions of Articles 15, 16, 17 and 18 shall apply to salaries, wages and other similar remuneration, and to pensions, in respect of services rendered in connection with a business carried on by a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof.

Article 20

Students, Apprentices and Business Trainees

A student, apprentice or business trainee who is present in a Contracting State solely for the purpose of his education or training and who is, or immediately before being so present was, a resident of the other Contracting State, shall be exempt from tax in the firstmentioned State on payments received from sources outside that firstmentioned State for the purposes of his maintenance, education or training.

Article 21

Miscellaneous Rules Applicable to Certain Offshore Activities

  1. The provisions of this Article shall apply notwithstanding any other provision of this Convention where activities     (in this Article called "relevant activities") are carried on offshore in connection with the exploration or exploitation of the sea bed and subsoil and their natural resources situated in a Contracting State.
  2. An enterprise of a Contracting State which carries on relevant activities in the other Contracting State shall, subject to paragraph 3, be deemed to be carrying on business in that other State through a permanent establishment situated therein.
  3. The provisions of paragraph 2 shall not apply where the relevant activities are carried on for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 30 days in any period of twelve months commencing or ending in the fiscal year concerned.  However, for the purposes of this paragraph, relevant activities carried on by an enterprise associated with another enterprise shall be regarded as carried on by the enterprise with which it is associated if such activities are substantially the same as relevant activities carried on by the last-mentioned enterprise, except to the extent that those activities are carried on at the same time. For the purposes of this paragraph, an enterprise shall be regarded as associated with another enterprise if one participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of the other enterprise or if the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of both enterprises.
  4. Profits derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from the transportation of supplies or personnel to a location, or between locations, where relevant activities are being carried on in the other Contracting State, or from the operation of tugboats and other vessels auxiliary to such activities, shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State.
  5. Salaries, wages and other similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment connected with relevant activities in the other Contracting State may, to the extent that the duties are performed offshore in that other State, be taxed in that other State.  However, such remuneration shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State if the employment is carried on offshore for an employer who is not a resident of the other State and for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 30 days in any twelve month period commencing or ending in the fiscal year concerned.
  6. A resident of a Contracting State who carries on relevant activities in the other Contracting State, which consist of professional services or other activities of an independent character, shall be deemed to be performing those activities from a fixed base in that other State.  However, income derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of such activities performed in the other Contracting State shall not be taxable in that other State if the activities are performed in that other State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 30 days in any twelve month period commencing or ending in the fiscal year concerned.

Article 22

Other Income

  1. Items of income of a resident of a Contracting State, wherever arising, not dealt with in the foregoing Articles of this Convention shall be taxable only in that State.
  2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply to income, other than income from immovable property as defined in paragraph 2 of Article 6, if the recipient of such income, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the income is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base.  In such case, the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

Article 23

Elimination of Double Taxation

Double taxation shall be eliminated as follows:

  1. Subject to the provisions of the laws of Ireland regarding the allowance as a credit against Irish tax of tax payable in a territory outside Ireland, which shall not affect the general principle hereof:
    1. South African tax payable under the laws of South Africa and in accordance with this Convention, whether directly or by deduction, on profits, income or gains from sources within South Africa (excluding in the case of a dividend tax payable in respect of the profits out of which the dividend is paid) shall be allowed as a credit against any Irish tax computed by reference to the same profits, income or gains by reference to which South African tax is computed;
    2. in the case of a dividend paid by a company which is a resident of South Africa to a company which is a resident of Ireland and which controls directly or indirectly 10 per cent or more of the voting power in the company paying the dividend, the credit shall take into account (in addition to any South African tax creditable under the provisions of subparagraph (a)) South African tax payable by the company in respect of the profits out of which such dividend is paid.
  2. In South Africa, Irish tax paid by residents of South Africa in respect of income taxable in Ireland, in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, shall be deducted from the taxes due according to South African fiscal law.  Such deduction shall not, however, exceed an amount which bears to the total South African tax payable the same ratio as the income concerned bears to the total income.
  3. For the purposes of paragraphs 1 and 2 profits, income or gains owned by a resident of a Contracting State which may be taxed in the other Contracting State in accordance with this Convention shall be deemed to be derived from sources in that other Contracting State.
  4. Where in accordance with any provisions of this Convention income derived by a resident of a Contracting State is exempt from tax in that State, such State may nevertheless, in calculating the amount of tax on the remaining income of such resident, take into account the exempted income.
  5. Where, under any provision of this Convention, income or gains is or are wholly or partly relieved from tax in a Contracting State and, under the laws in force in the other Contracting State, an individual, in respect of the said income or gains, is subject to tax by reference to the amount thereof which is remitted to or received in that other State, and not by reference to the full amount thereof, then the relief to be allowed under this Convention in the firstmentioned State shall apply only to so much of the income or gains as is remitted to or received in that other State.
    1. Where in accordance with the provisions of the laws of South Africa specified in subparagraph     (b), provided that such provisions remain in substance unchanged after the date of signature of this Convention, the profits of an enterprise of South Africa are exempted from tax for the purpose of encouraging economic development in South Africa, dividends paid out of such profits by a company which is a resident of South Africa to a company which is a resident of Ireland and which controls directly or indirectly 10 per cent or more of the voting power in the company paying the dividends shall not be regarded as income for the purposes of taxation in Ireland to the extent of 75 per cent of the amount of such dividends.
    2. Section 37H of the Income Tax Act     (Act No 58 of 1962) as amended.
    3. The provisions of paragraph     (a) shall cease to apply:
      1. after 31 December 2009; or
      2. after such earlier date, if any, as the taxation laws of South Africa are changed to permit the taxation in South Africa of dividends derived from a company resident in Ireland. In the event of such a change in the taxation laws, or of the publication of proposals to make such a change, Ireland shall, upon request from South Africa, enter into negotiations concerning the continuation of the provisions of this paragraph notwithstanding such change.

Article 24

Nondiscrimination

  1. Nationals of a Contracting State shall not be subjected in the other Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith, which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which nationals of that other State in the same circumstances, in particular with respect to residence, are or may be subjected. This provision shall, notwithstanding the provisions of Article 1, also apply to persons who are not residents of one or both of the Contracting States.
  2. The taxation on a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State shall not be less favourably levied in that other State than the taxation levied on enterprises of that other State carrying on the same activities.  This provision shall not be construed as obliging a Contracting State to grant to residents of the other Contracting State any personal allowances, reliefs and reductions for taxation purposes on account of civil status or family responsibilities which it grants to its own residents.
  3. Enterprises of a Contracting State, the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of the other Contracting State, shall not be subjected in the firstmentioned State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which other similar enterprises of that firstmentioned State are or may be subjected.
  4. Except where the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article 9, paragraph 4 of Article 11 or paragraph 4 of Article 12 apply, interest, royalties and other disbursements paid by an enterprise of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State shall, for the purpose of determining the taxable profits of such enterprise, be deductible under the same conditions as if they had been paid to a resident of the firstmentioned State.
  5. In this Article the term "taxation" means taxes which are the subject of this Convention.

Article 25

Mutual Agreement Procedure

  1. Where a person considers that the actions of one or both of the Contracting States result or will result for him in taxation not in accordance with this Convention, he may, irrespective of the remedies provided by the domestic law of those States, present his case to the competent authority of the Contracting State of which he is a resident or, if his case comes under paragraph 1 of Article 24, to that of the Contracting State of which he is a national.  The case must be presented within three years from the first notification of the action resulting in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of the Convention.
  2. The competent authority shall endeavour, if the objection appears to it to be justified and if it is not itself able to arrive at a satisfactory solution, to resolve the case by mutual agreement with the competent authority of the other Contracting State, with a view to the avoidance of taxation which is not in accordance with the Convention.  Any agreement reached shall be implemented notwithstanding any time limits in the domestic law of the Contracting States.
  3. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to resolve by mutual agreement any difficulties or doubts arising as to the interpretation or application of the Convention.  They may also consult together for the elimination of double taxation in cases not provided for in the Convention.
  4. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may communicate with each other directly for the purpose of reaching an agreement in the sense of the preceding paragraphs.

Article 26

Exchange of Information

  1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information as is necessary for carrying out the provisions of this Convention or of the domestic laws of the Contracting States concerning taxes covered by the Convention in so far as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to the Convention.  The exchange of information is not restricted by Article 1.  Any information received by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic law of that State and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities     (including courts and administrative bodies) concerned with the assessment or collection of, the enforcement or prosecution in respect of, or the determination of appeals in relation to, the taxes covered by the Convention.  Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes.  They may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions.
  2. In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 1 be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation:
    1. to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws or the administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;
    2. to supply information which is not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State;
    3. to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or information, the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy (ordre public).

Article 27

Members of Diplomatic Missions and Consular Posts

Nothing in this Convention shall affect the fiscal privileges of members of diplomatic missions or consular posts under the general rules of international law or under the provisions of special agreements.

Article 28

Entry into Force

  1. Each of the Contracting States shall notify to the other the completion of the procedures required by its law for the bringing into force of this Convention.  The Convention shall enter into force on the date of receipt of the later of these notifications.
  2. The provisions of the Convention shall thereupon have effect:
    1. with regard to taxes withheld at source, in respect of amounts paid or credited on or after the first day of January next following the date upon which the Convention enters into force;  and
    2. with regard to other taxes, in the case of Ireland, for financial years in respect of corporation tax and for years of assessment in respect of income tax and capital gains tax and, in the case of South Africa, in respect of years of assessment, beginning on or after the first day of January next following the date upon which the Convention enters into force.
  3. The Agreement between the Government of Ireland and the Government of the Union of South Africa for the avoidance of double taxation on income derived from the business of sea and air transport, which entered into force upon proclamation in the Government Gazette of the Union of South Africa on 26 August 1960, shall terminate upon the entry into force of this Convention and its provisions shall not have effect for any period for which this Convention shall have effect.

Article 29

Termination

  1. This Convention shall remain in force indefinitely but either of the Contracting States may terminate the Convention through the diplomatic channel, by giving to the other Contracting State written notice of termination not later than 30 June of any calendar year starting five years after the year in which the Convention entered into force.
  2. In such event the Convention shall cease to apply:
    1. with regard to taxes withheld at source, in respect of amounts paid or credited after the end of the calendar year in which such notice is given; and
    2. with regard to other taxes, in the case of Ireland, for financial years in respect of corporation tax and for years of assessment in respect of income tax and capital gains tax and, in the case of South Africa, in respect of years of assessment, beginning after the end of the calendar year in which such notice is given.

In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly authorised thereto, have signed this Convention.

Done at Pretoria in duplicate, this 7th day of October,1997.

Eamon O' Tuathail
For the Government of Ireland

Gill Marcus
For the Government of the Republic of South Africa


Protocol

At the time of signing this Convention between the Government of Ireland and the Government of the Republic of South Africa for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income and Capital Gains, the undersigned have agreed that the following provisions shall form an integral part of the Convention:

  1. Concerning Article 10 it is understood that dividends arising in South Africa or Ireland are not subjected to tax. Should there be any change in these systems, the Contracting States will reconsider the provisions of that Article at the request of either State.
  2. With reference to paragraph 1 of Article 23 of the Convention it is understood that:
    1. if following the signature of the Convention, the laws of South Africa should change to permit the taxation of dividends from sources outside South Africa and the allowance for relief against South African tax on dividends received in South Africa of tax of another country on the profits out of which the dividends are paid, then it shall immediately notify Ireland and enter into a renegotiation of this Convention to allow similar relief in respect of Irish tax on profits out of which dividends are received in South Africa;
    2. the South African secondary tax on companies is a tax on the income of the periods for which the tax is paid.
  3. Notwithstanding paragraph 2 of Article 24, South Africa may impose on the profits attributable to a permanent establishment in South Africa of a company which is a resident of Ireland a tax at a rate which does not exceed the rate of normal tax on companies resident in South Africa by more than five percentage points.

In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly authorised thereto, have signed this Protocol.

Done at Pretoria in duplicate, this 7th day of October, 1997.

Eamon O' Tuathail
For the Government of Ireland

Gill Marcus
For the Government of the Republic of South Africa


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